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A to Z of neurological topics

In this section we feature information on a number of tests, treatments and conditions, with links for more information either within this website or on external sites where possible. If you can't find what you're looking for, you may wish to speak with one of our Helpline team who may be able to answer your questions. Send an email to [email protected] or call free on 0808 808 1000.

  • T

    Tarlov cyst


    See perineural cyst for more information.

    Temperomandibular disorder (TMD)


    A condition that affects the movement of the jaw, and which can cause symptoms such as pain around the jaw, headaches, clicking or popping noises when moving the jaw, and restricted jaw movement.


    See our Face pain booklet

    Temporal arteritis


    An inflammatory condition that affects the arteries, particularly those at the side of the head, and which can cause headaches, pain and tenderness around the jaw and temples, and visual problems.

    Tension-type headache


    The most common type of headache that typically feels like a dull ache with constant pressure around the front, top and sides of the head.


    See our Headache booklet

    The Brain Charity


    The Brain Charity



    A blood clot that has formed in a blood vessel and is obstructing the flow of blood. The clot itself is termed a thrombus.

    Thunderclap headache


    A severe headache that reaches its peak within 60 seconds of onset.



    A persistent sound in the ears, sometimes described as ringing. The sounds in tinnitus can occur despite there being no external sound or source.

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome


    A condition that causes severe headaches, decreased and painful eye movements, and other neurological symptoms.

    Tonsillar ectopia


    This is a medical way of saying that the cerebellar tonsils are not in the usual position, and are extending down into the spinal canal.


    You may be interested in reading our Chiari malformation fact sheet.

    Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)


    A temporary disruption of the blood flow to an area of the brain, which can affect the functioning of the brain and produce symptoms similar to that of a stroke. A TIA is sometimes described as a ‘mini-stroke.

    Transverse myelitis


    An inflammatory disorder that affects the spinal cord and can cause weakness and changes to sensation in the lower body, as well as problems with bowel and bladder control.


    See our Transverse myelitis booklet

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)


    See brain injury for more information.

    Trigeminal autonomic cephalgia


    A group of disorders that cause headaches or face pain and which also cause other symptoms such as eye-watering, redness of the eyes, a runny or blocked nose, and drooping of the eyelid.

    Trigeminal neuralgia


    A chronic pain disorder that affects one of the nerves in the head and neck known as the trigeminal nerve, and causes episodes of sudden, severe face pain.


    See our Face pain booklet