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A to Z of neurological topics

In this section we feature information on a number of tests, treatments and conditions, with links for more information either within this website or on external sites where possible. If you can't find what you're looking for, you may wish to speak with one of our Helpline team who may be able to answer your questions. Send an email to [email protected] or call free on 0808 808 1000.

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    A condition that affects the brain’s ability to regulate the normal sleep-wake cycle. Symptoms include excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, cataplexy, hallucinations and disturbed sleep patterns.


    Useful links:

    Narcolepsy UK

    Neck pain


    Useful links:

    Back Care



    A type of tumour that affects nerves and develops from the lining that surrounds them.


    See our Spinal tumours booklet



    A group of genetic conditions that cause tumours, called neurofibromas, to develop on the nerves in the body.


    Useful links:

    The Neurofibromatosis Association

    Neurogenic shock


    A form of shock that can follow and injury or trauma to the spinal cord and that can cause low blood pressure and a slowed heart rate.



    A medical doctor who does not perform operations but specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of people with neurological conditions.

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)

    (also known as Devic’s disease or Devic’s syndrome)


    An inflammatory, demyelinating condition that affects the nerves of the eyes (optic nerves) and the spinal cord, and can cause a wide range of symptoms including blindness, weakness, nerve pain and muscle spasms.


    See our Transverse myelitis booklet


    Useful links:

    Neuromyelitis Optica UK Specialist Services

    NMO-UK Rare Illness Research Foundation

    Transverse Myelitis Association

    Neuropathic pain


    A type of pain that is caused by disease or damage affecting a nerve, and that doesn’t respond to common forms of pain relief.


    See our Neuropathic pain article



    Neuropathy is the result of damage or disease affecting the nerves outside of the brain or spine. Symptoms can include weakness, numbness and pain in the areas that the nerves carry signals to and from.



    A chartered physiotherapist that specialises in treating people with neurological conditions. A neurophysiotherapist will asses, plan and treat people with physical problems.



    A psychologist specialising in the functions of the brain, particularly memory, concentration and problem solving.



    Neurosarcoidosis is a form of sarcoidosis that is affecting the nervous system, and causes inflammation in the brain, spinal cord and nerves. Symptoms will depend on where in the body is being affected, and can include weakness or paralysis of muscles, and changes in sensation.



    A medical doctor who has further training specifically in the area of the brain and spine, and performs operations.



    Involuntary movements of the eyes that are most often side to side, but may also be up and down or circular in motion.